Day 16: Exploring Machine Learning with Python

SciPy is a Python library for scientific / technical computing. Some of its core packages:

1) NumPy: Base N-dimensional array package
2) SciPy: Fundamental library for scientific computing
3) Matplotlib: Comprehensive 2D Plotting
4) IPython: Enhanced Interactive Console
5) Sympy: Symbolic mathematics
6) pandas: Data structures & analysis

Let us directly jump in and look at some of the steps listed at Your First Machine Learning Project in Python Step-By-Step:

1) IMPORT

import pandas
from pandas.plotting import scatter_matrix
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from sklearn import model_selection
from sklearn.metrics import classification_report
from sklearn.metrics import confusion_matrix
from sklearn.metrics import accuracy_score
from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression
from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier
from sklearn.neighbors import KNeighborsClassifier
from sklearn.discriminant_analysis import LinearDiscriminantAnalysis
from sklearn.naive_bayes import GaussianNB
from sklearn.svm import SVC
2) DATASET
names = [‘sepal-length’, ‘sepal-width’, ‘petal-length’, ‘petal-width’, ‘class’]
dataset = pandas.read_csv(url, names=names)
3) DATASET CHECK
print(dataset.shape)
print(dataset.head(20))
print(dataset.describe())
print(dataset.groupby(‘class’).size())
4) DATASET VISUALIZATION
dataset.plot(kind=’box’, subplots=True, layout=(2,2), sharex=False, sharey=False)
plt.show()
dataset.hist()
plt.show()
scatter_matrix(dataset)
plt.show()
5) ALGORITHMS, MODELLING

 

array = dataset.values
X = array[:,0:4]
Y = array[:,4]
validation_size = 0.20
seed = 7
X_train, X_validation, Y_train, Y_validation = model_selection.train_test_split(X, Y, test_size=validation_size, random_state=seed)

seed = 7
scoring = ‘accuracy’

models = []
models.append((‘LR’, LogisticRegression(solver=’liblinear’, multi_class=’ovr’)))
models.append((‘LDA’, LinearDiscriminantAnalysis()))
models.append((‘KNN’, KNeighborsClassifier()))
models.append((‘CART’, DecisionTreeClassifier()))
models.append((‘NB’, GaussianNB()))
models.append((‘SVM’, SVC(gamma=’auto’)))
# evaluate each model in turn
results = []
names = []
for name, model in models:
kfold = model_selection.KFold(n_splits=10, random_state=seed)
cv_results = model_selection.cross_val_score(model, X_train, Y_train, cv=kfold, scoring=scoring)
results.append(cv_results)
names.append(name)
msg = “%s: %f (%f)” % (name, cv_results.mean(), cv_results.std())
print(msg)

# Compare Algorithms
fig = plt.figure()
fig.suptitle(‘Algorithm Comparison’)
ax = fig.add_subplot(111)
plt.boxplot(results)
ax.set_xticklabels(names)
plt.show()

knn = KNeighborsClassifier()
knn.fit(X_train, Y_train)
predictions = knn.predict(X_validation)
print(accuracy_score(Y_validation, predictions))
print(confusion_matrix(Y_validation, predictions))
print(classification_report(Y_validation, predictions))

MORE RESOURCES:

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